- "and in these latter days, for us and for our salvation, born of the Virgin Mary, the Mother of God, according to the Manhood;"74 - the Symbol of Chalcedon.
74"The predicate θεοτόκος, the Bringer-forth of God, Dei genitrix (al. quæ Deum peperit , or even divini numinis creatrix), is directed against Nestorius, and was meant originally not so much to exalt the Virgin Mary, as to assert the true divinity of Christ and the realness of the Incarnation.
Basil of Seleucia: Θεὸν σαρκωθέντα τεκοῦσα θεοτόκος ὀνομάζεται.
It is immediately after qualified by the phrase κατὰ τὴν ἀνθρωπότητα (secundum humanitatem), in distinction from κατὰ τὴν θεότητα (secundum deitatem). This is a very important limitation, and necessary to guard against Mariolatry, and the heathenish, blasphemous, and contradictory notion that the uncreated, eternal God can be born in time.
Mary was the mother not merely of the human nature of Jesus of Nazareth, but of the theanthropic person of Jesus Christ; yet not of his eternal Godhead (the λόγος ἄσαρκος), but of his incarnate person, or the Logos united to humanity (the λόγος ἔνσαρκος). In like manner, the subject of the Passion was the theanthropic person; yet not according to his divine nature, which in itself is incapable of suffering, but according to his human nature, which was the organ of suffering. There is no doubt, however, that the unscriptural terms θεοτόκος, Dei genitrix, Deipara, mater Dei, which remind one of the heathen mothers of gods, have greatly promoted Mariolatry, which aided in the defeat of Nestorius at the Council of Ephesus, 431.
It is safer to adhere to the New Testament designation of Mary as μήτηρ Ἰησοῦ, or μήτηρ τοῦ Κυρίου (Luke i. 43). Creeds of Christendom, with a History and Critical notes. Volume II. The History of Creeds, Philip Schaff.
- "Christians at Constantinople had been quarreling about what to call Jesus' mother. Alexandrians honored her as Theotokos, Mother of God. Antiochenes objected: Mary was mother of Jesus' humanity, and to call her Mother of God threatened the integrity of his humanity. ... [Nestorius] proposed a compromise: call Mary Christotokos, Mother of Christ. ... If Nestorius denied that Mary was Mother of God and recognized her only as Mother of Christ, then, Cyril [of Alexandria] reasoned, Nestorius must be dividing Jesus into two persons, the divine Son of God and a human Christ."
The Council of Ephesus (AD 431) settled the dispute of what to call Mary: Nestorius was deposed as patriarch at Constantinople and the Council of Ephesus taught that Mary is rightly honored as Mother of God. The College Student's Introduction to Christology, William P. Loewe.
Thursday, May 28, 2009
Just a couple of things ...